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The newest abundant recombination events into the honeybees dispersed extremely unevenly along side chromosomes (Additional document 5)

Facts from fungus suggests that the newest underestimation could be acute as the almost all (90%) out of CO-related recombination occurrences is actually of your effortless variety . Whenever we suppose a similar ratio during the bees this suggests you to definitely we may become forgotten 261 away from 290 get across-more associated gene conversion process situations and therefore way more reasonable imagine to have the complete amount of gene sales for every single drone is circa a how to see who likes you on chinalovecupid without paying dozen (290 CO-related gene transformation situations from which 10%, 30, try complex and you will discernable, and 221 NCO incidents = 511 gene conversion occurrences all over 43 drones, everything 12 each drone). In the event that these types of rates is actually correct, they nevertheless signifies that no more than 8% regarding crossing-over events keeps an associated gene conversion process system, however much lower compared to fungus. Yet not, so it effects because of the criteria is responsive to presumptions concerning cousin rate from state-of-the-art and easy gene conversions for the crossing-over. In the event that, such as for instance, our company is destroyed 99% from CO-associated gene transformation incidents after that we are able to getting missing circa 3,100000 situations and most CO occurrences enjoys an excellent gene conversion experience. The fresh haploid drone system cannot readily permit guess of your own speed away from simple instead of state-of-the-art occurrences so we hop out not sure the newest level of CO-related gene conversions.

Delivery of your recombination situations along side genome

The recombination rate varies between 0 and 197 cM/Mb when measured in non-overlapping 200 kb windows across chromosomes (Figure 3, Figure S8 in Additional file 1 and Table S6 in Additional file 2). A total of 58 CO hot-regions (Poisson distribution, P <0.05) locating at approximately 10 Mb regions were identified, and 54 CO cold regions (Poisson distribution, P <0.05), with a combined length of 31.2 Mb, were detected. In other words, approximately 25% of CO events are clustered within approximately 5% of the whole genome (Table S7 in Additional file 2), and approximately 14% of the genome is entirely devoid of CO events (Table S6 in Additional file 2). Chromosome 1 had the largest number of recombination hot regions (12 out of 54; Table S6 in Additional file 2). However, the domains with the highest recombination rate (197.7 cM/Mb) were observed on chromosomes 2 (Chr2: 6,200,000 to 6,400,000) and 6 (Chr6: 5,600,000 to 5,800,000), this rate being approximately 5.3-fold higher than the genome average. Even in some high recombination regions, many COs and gene conversions were found to cluster within some very small regions (for example, <10 kb).

Recombination rate variation along chromosome 1. Rate above the red dotted line is CO hotspot for P <0.01 and rate above the yellow dotted line is CO hotspot for P <0.05.

Chromosome physical length is strongly correlated with the number of CO events per chromosome (r = 0.95, P <10 -4 ; Figure S9 in Additional file 1). This suggests that the number of events per unit physical distance is approximately a constant. Indeed, as then expected, chromosome length is not correlated with the CO rates per Mb (P = 0.21; Figure S9D in Additional file 1). Though the recombination rate variation between chromosomes is less dramatic (36 ± 6.1 cM/Mb on average, in the range of 27 to 45), relatively higher CO rates were observed on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, and 10 (44.1 cM/Mb on average) than that on chromosomes 9, 11, and 15 (26.9 cM/Mb on average) (Table 2).

Crossing over was associated with the GC content, nucleotide variety, gene density, and CNVs

Early in the day research shows that recombination price enjoys a deep failing positive correlation that have GC-blogs within the 125 to help you 250 kb succession windows in the honeybee , maybe due the fresh GC-biased gene sales. Do we get the same consequently they are breakpoints in the higher GC blogs sure-enough if the CO breakpoints is actually where CO-related gene conversion process is acting?

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